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Write a Business Plan

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Write a Business Plan

A well-written business plan is essential to starting and running a business. Business plans are required when applying for business loans or seeking investors. A good business plan describes in deal a business' mission and goals, and how these goals will be achieved. The following resources will help you develop a sound business plan.

  • How to Write a Business Plan
    Guidance on writing winning business plans.

A written guide to starting and running your business successfully is essential. This plan will encourage loans, promote growth, and provide a map for you to follow.

    Strategic Planning
    Learn to strategize in order for your business to succeed.

    Too many people think strategic planning is something meant only for big businesses, but it is equally applicable to small businesses. Strategic planning is matching the strengths of your business to available opportunities. To do this effectively, you need to collect, screen, and analyze information about the business environment. You also need to have a clear understanding of your business - its strengths and weaknesses - and develop a clear mission, goals, and objectives. Acquiring this understanding often involves more work than expected. You must realistically assess the business you are convinced you know well.

    In addition, strategic planning has become more important to business managers because technology and competition have made the business environment less stable and less predictable. If you are to survive and prosper, you should take the time to identify the niches in which you are most likely to succeed, and to identify the resource demands that must be met. Learn more about this topic.

    Essential Elements of a Good Business Plan for Growing Companies

    A business plan should be a work-in-progress. Even successful, growing businesses should maintain a current business plan.
    As any good salesperson knows, you have to know everything you can about your products or services in order to persuade someone to buy them. In this discussion, you are the salesperson and your products represent your business. Your customers are potential investors and employees. Since you want your customers to believe in you, you must be able to convince them that you know what you are talking about when it comes to your business.

    To become an expert (or to fine-tune your knowledge if you already believe you are one), you must be willing to roll up your sleeves and begin digging through information. Since not all information that you gather will be relevant to the development of your business plan, it will help you to know what you are looking for before you get started. In order to help you with this process, we have developed an outline of the essential elements a good business plan.

    Every successful business plan should include something about each of the following areas, since these are what make up the essentials of a good business plan:

    • Executive Summary
    • Market Analysis
    • Company Description
    • Organization & Management
    • Marketing & Sales Management
    • Service or Product Line
    • Funding Request
    • Financials
    • Appendix

    Writing The Business Plan
    Detailed, step-by-step explanation to help write your plan.

    What goes in a business plan? The body can be divided into four distinct sections:

    1) Description of the business
    2) Marketing
    3) Finances
    4) Management

    Agenda should include an executive summary, supporting documents, and financial projections. Although there is no single formula for developing a business plan, some elements are common to all business plans. They are summarized in the following outline:

    Elements of a Business Plan

    1. Cover sheet
    2. Statement of purpose
    3. Table of contents

    I. The Business
    A. Description of business
    B. Marketing
    C. Competition
    D. Operating procedures
    E. Personnel
    F. Business insurance


    II. Financial Data
    A. Loan applications
    B. Capital equipment and supply list
    C. Balance sheet
    D. Breakeven analysis
    E. Pro-forma income projections (profit & loss statements)
    F. Three-year summary
    G. Detail by month, first year
    H. Detail by quarters, second and third years
    I. Assumptions upon which projections were based
    J. Pro-forma cash flow


    III. Supporting Documents
    A. Tax returns of principals for last three years Personal financial
    statement (all banks have these forms)
    B. For franchised businesses, a copy of franchise contract and all
    supporting documents provided by the franchisor
    C. Copy of proposed lease or purchase agreement for building space
    D. Copy of licenses and other legal documents
    E. Copy of resumes of all principals
    F. Copies of letters of intent from suppliers, etc.

    Business Plan Workshop
    An online workshop to help start and improve your business plan.

    Using The Business Plan
    How to get the most out of your plan.

    A business plan is a tool with three basic purposes: communication, management, and planning. As a communication tool, it is used to attract investment capital, secure loans, convince workers to hire on, and assist in attracting strategic business partners. The development of a comprehensive business plan shows whether or not a business has the potential to make a profit. It requires a realistic look at almost every phase of business and allows you to show that you have worked out all the problems and decided on potential alternatives before actually launching your business.

    As a management tool, the business plan helps you track, monitor, and evaluate your progress. The business plan is a living document that you will modify as you gain knowledge and experience. By using your business plan to establish timelines and milestones, you can gage your progress and compare your projections to actual accomplishments.
    As a planning tool, the business plan guides you through the various phases of your business. A thoughtful plan will help identify roadblocks and obstacles so that you can avoid them and establish alternatives. Many business owners share their business plans with their employees to foster a broader understanding of where the business is going.

    Finding A Niche
    A small, steady corner of the market could be your success story.A market in its entirety is too broad in scope for any but the largest companies to tackle successfully. The best strategy for a smaller business is to divide demand into manageable market niches. Small operations can then offer specialized goods and services attractive to a specific group of prospective buyers.

    There are undoubtedly some particular products or services you are especially suited to provide. Study the market carefully and you will find opportunities. As an example, surgical instruments used to be sold in bulk to both small medical practices and large hospitals. One firm realized that the smaller practices could not afford to sterilize instruments after each use like hospitals did, but instead simply disposed of them. The firm's sales representatives talked to surgeons and hospital workers to learn what would be more suitable for them. Based on this information, the company developed disposable instruments which could be sold in larger quantities at a lower cost. Another firm capitalized on the fact that hospital operating rooms must carefully count the instruments used before and after surgery. This firm met that particular need by packaging their instruments in pre-counted, customized sets for different forms of surgery.

    While researching your own company's niche, consider the results of your market survey and the areas in which your competitors are already firmly situated. Put this information into a table or a graph to illustrate where an opening might exist for your product or service. Try to find the right configuration of products, services, quality, and price that will ensure the least direct competition. Unfortunately, there is no universally effective way to make these comparisons. Not only will the desired attributes vary from industry to industry, but there is also an imaginative element that cannot be formalized. For example, only someone who had already thought of developing pre-packaged surgical instruments could use a survey to determine whether or not a market actually existed for them.

    A well-designed database can help you sort through your market information and reveal particular segments you might not see otherwise. For example, do customers in a certain geographic area tend to purchase products that combine high quality and high price more frequently? Do your small business clients take advantage of your customer service more often than larger ones? If so, consider focusing on being a local provider of high quality goods and services or a service-oriented company that pays extra attention to small businesses.

    If you do target a new niche market, make sure that this niche does not conflict with your overall business plan. For example, a small bakery that makes cookies by hand cannot go after a market for inexpensive, mass-produced cookies, regardless of the demand.

    Business Planning FAQs
    Answers to the most popular business plan questions.

    What is a business plan and why do I need one?

    A business plan precisely defines your business, identifies your goals, and serves as your firm's resume. Its basic components include a current and pro forma balance sheet, an income statement, and a cash flow analysis. It helps you allocate resources properly, handle unforeseen complications, and make the right decisions. As it provides specific and organized information about your company and how you will repay borrowed money, a good business plan is a crucial part of any loan package. Additionally, it can tell your sales personnel, suppliers, and others about your operations and goals.

    Why do I need to define my business in detail?

    It may seem silly to ask yourself, "What business am I really in?", but some owner/managers have gone broke because they never answered that question. One watch store owner realized that most of his time was spent repairing watches, while most of his money was spent selling them. He finally decided he was in the repair business and discontinued the sales operations. His profits improved dramatically.

    A Business Plan: The Roadmap To Success
    The SBA's guide to developing a comprehensive business plan.

    A business plan precisely defines your business, identifies your goals, and serves as your firm's resume. The basic components include a current and pro forma balance sheet, an income statement, and a cash flow analysis. It helps you allocate resources properly, handle unforeseen complications, and make good business decisions. As it provides specific and organized information about your company and how you will repay borrowed money, a good business plan is a crucial part of any loan application. Additionally, it informs sales personnel, suppliers, and others about your operations and goals.

    Plan Your Work

    The importance of a comprehensive, thoughtful business plan cannot be overemphasized. Much hinges on it: outside funding, credit from suppliers, management of your operation and finances, promotion and marketing of your business, and achievement of your goals and objectives.

    "The business plan is a necessity. If the person who wants to start a small business can't put a business plan together, he or she is in trouble," says Robert Krummer, Jr., chairman of First Business Bank in Los Angeles.

    Despite the critical importance of a business plan, many entrepreneurs drag their feet when it comes to preparing a written document. They argue that their marketplace changes too fast for a business plan to be useful or that they just don't have enough time, but just as a builder won't begin construction without a blueprint, eager business owners shouldn't rush into new ventures without a plan.

    Before you begin writing your business plan, consider four core questions:

    • What service or product does your business provide and what needs does it fill?
    • Who are the potential customers for your product or service and why will they purchase it from you?
    • How will you reach your potential customers?
    • Where will you get the financial resources to start your business.

Business Plan for Home Based Businesses
Provides a comprehensive approach to developing a business plan for a home based business.

Sample Business Plans
Bplan is a commercial site providing access to hundreds of free sample business plans.

U.S. Small Business Administration's Small Business Planner provides guides and resources on developing business plans and common-sense advise on starting a new business.

Visit our Small Business Assistance and Training page to learn about free counseling and training programs that are available to help you plan and start your small business.

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