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Tax Info for Agriculture Business Types

Laws and Regulations

Tax Tips - Agriculture

Reporting Farm Income and Expenses

FS-2007-20, June 2007 . Livestock, produce and grain sales are common sources of farm income.

To educate taxpayers about their filing obligations, this fact sheet, the thirteenth in a series, highlights some income sources and deductible business expenses of farmers. Incorrect reporting of farm income and expenses accounts for part of the estimated $345 billion per year in unpaid taxes, according to IRS estimates.

Income Sources

Farmers may receive income from many sources, but the most common source is the sale of livestock, produce, grains, and other products raised or bought for resale. The entire amount a farmer receives, including money and the fair market value of any property or services, is reported on IRS Schedule F, Profit or Loss From Farming.

Bartering is another income source for farmers. Bartering occurs when farm products are traded for other farm products, property, someone else.s labor or personal items. For example, if a farmer helps another farmer build a barn and receives a cow for his work, the recipient of the cow must report its fair market value as ordinary income. If the farmer uses this cow for business purposes, he may be able to claim depreciation over its useful life as well as deduct the expenses incurred for the cow. However, if the cow is for personal use, no depreciation or expenses for the cow would be deductible.
Other income sources include:

  • Cooperative distributions
  • Agricultural program payments
  • Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) loans
  • Crop insurance proceeds and federal crop disaster payments
  • Custom hire (machine work) income

Deductible Expenses

The ordinary and necessary costs of operating a farm for profit are deductible business expenses. An ordinary expense is an expense that is common and accepted in the business. A necessary expense is one that is appropriate for the business.

Among the deductible expenses are amounts paid to farm labor. If a farmer pays his child to do farm work and a true employer-employee relationship exists, reasonable wages or other compensation paid to the child is deductible. The wages are included in the child.s income, and the child may have to file an income tax return. These wages may also be subject to social security and Medicare taxes if the child is age 18 or older.

Another deductible expense is depreciation. Farmers can depreciate most types of tangible property .. except land .. such as buildings, machinery, equipment, vehicles, certain livestock and furniture. Farmers can also depreciate certain intangible property, such as copyrights, patents, and computer software. To be depreciable, the property must

  • Be property the farmer owns
  • Be used in the farmer.s business or income-producing activity
  • Have a determinable life
  • Have a useful life that extends substantially beyond the year placed in service

Some expenses paid during the tax year may be partly personal and partly business. Examples include gasoline, oil, fuel, water, rent, electricity, telephone, automobile upkeep, repairs, insurance, interest and taxes. Farmers must allocate these expenses between their business and personal parts. Generally, the personal part of these expenses is not deductible.

For example, a farmer paid $1,500 for electricity during the tax year. He used one-third of the electricity for personal purposes and two-thirds for farming. Under these circumstances, two-thirds of the electricity expense, or $1,000, is deductible as a farm business expense. Records must be maintained to document the business portion of the expense.

Patronage Dividends - Agriculture Tax Tips

If you buy farm supplies through a cooperative, you may receive income from the cooperative in the form of patronage dividends. If you sell your farm products through a cooperative, you may receive either patronage dividends or a per-unit retain certificate, explained later, from the cooperative.

Form 1099-PATR

The cooperative will report the income to you on Form 1099-PATR (PDF) or a similar form and send a copy to the IRS. Form 1099-PATR may also show an alternative minimum tax adjustment that you must include if you are required to file Form 6251, Alternative Minimum Tax--Individuals (PDF). For information on the Alternative Minimum Tax, Refer to Publication 225.

Per-Unit Retain Certificates

A per-unit retain certificate is any written notice that shows the stated dollar amount of a per-unit retain allocation made to you by the cooperative. A per-unit retain allocation is an amount paid to patrons for products sold for them that is fixed without regard to the net earnings of the cooperative. These allocations can be paid in money, other property, or qualified certificates.

Per-unit Retain Certificates issued by a cooperative generally receive the same tax treatment as Patronage Dividends, discussed earlier.

Cancellation of Debt - Agriculture Tax Tips

Have you had a portion of a loan forgiven?

If your debt is canceled or forgiven, other than as a gift or bequest to you, you must include the canceled amount in gross income for tax purposes. Report the canceled amount on line 10 of Schedule F (PDF) if you incurred the debt in your farming business. If the debt is a non-business debt, report the canceled amount on line 21 of Form 1040 (PDF).

Form 1099-C

If a federal agency, financial institution, or credit union cancels or forgives your debt of $600 or more, you will receive a Form 1099-C, Cancellation of Debt (PDF). The amount of debt canceled is shown in box 2.

Qualified Farm Debt

You can exclude from income a canceled debt that is qualified farm debt owed to a qualified person. This exclusion applies only if you were solvent when the debt was canceled or, if you were insolvent, only to the extent the canceled debt is more than the amount by which you were insolvent. Your debt is qualified farm debt if both of the following requirements are met.

  • You incurred it directly in operating a farming business
  • At least 50% of your total gross receipts for the 3 tax years preceding the year of debt cancellation were from your farming business

Disaster Area Losses - Agriculture Tax Tips

Has your county been declared a Federal Disaster Area?

Special rules apply to presidentially declared disaster area losses. A presidentially declared disaster is a disaster that occurred in an area declared by the president to be eligible for federal assistance under the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act.

This tax tip discusses the special rules for when to deduct a disaster area loss and the abatement of interest on tax underpayments. For other special rules, see Publication 547.

When to Deduct Disaster Area Losses

If you have a deductible loss from a presidentially declared disaster area, you can elect to deduct that loss on your return or amended return for the immediately preceding tax year. If you make this election, the loss is treated as having occurred in the preceding year.

Note: Claiming a qualifying disaster loss on the previous year's return may result in a lower tax for that year, often producing or increasing a cash refund.

You must make this election to take your casualty loss for the disaster in the preceding year by the later of the following dates:

  • The due date (without extensions) for filing your tax return for the tax year in which the disaster actually occurred
  • The due date (with extensions) for the return for the preceding tax year

Net Operating Losses - Agriculture Tax Tips

Did you have a really bad year?

If your deductible loss from operating your farm is more than your other income for the year, you may have a net operating loss (NOL). You may also have an NOL if you had a personal or business-related casualty or theft loss that was more than your income.

Note: If you have an NOL this year, you can carry it to other years and deduct it. You may be able to get a refund of all or part of the income tax you paid for past years, or you may be able to reduce your tax in future years.


Generally, you carry an NOL back to the two tax years before the NOL year and deduct it from income you had in those years. You can choose not to carry back an NOL and only carry it forward. There are rules for figuring how much of the NOL is used in each tax year and how much is carried to the next tax year. These rules are explained in Publication 536.

Unless you choose to waive the carryback period, as discussed later, you must first carry the entire NOL to the earliest carryback year. If your NOL is not used up, you can carry the rest to the next earliest carryback year, and so on.

Refigured Tax

Refigure your deductions, credits, and tax for each of the years to which you carried back an NOL. If your refigured tax is less than the tax you originally paid, you can apply for a refund by filing Form 1040X, Amended U.S. Individual Income Tax Return (PDF), for each year affected, or by filing Form 1045 (PDF). You will usually get a refund faster by filing Form 1045, and generally you can use one Form 1045 to apply an NOL to all carryback years.

Exceptions to 2-Year Carryback Rule

Eligible Losses

Eligible Losses qualify for longer carryback periods. The carryback period for an Eligible Loss is 3 years. An Eligible Loss is any part of an NOL that:

  1. Is from a casualty or theft, or
  2. Is attributable to a Presidentially declared disaster for a qualified small business

Note: An eligible loss does not include a farming loss.

Farming Loss

Farming Losses qualify for longer carryback periods. The carryback period for a Farming Loss is 5 years. A Farming Loss is the smaller of:

  1. The amount which would be the NOL for the tax year if only income and deductions attributable to farming businesses were taken into account, or
  2. The NOL for the tax year

You can choose to treat a farming loss as if it were not a farming loss. If you make this choice, the loss is subject to the 2-year carryback period. For more information, refer to, When To Use an NOL in Publication 536.


If you do not use up the NOL in the carryback years, carry forward what remains of it to the 20 tax years following the NOL year. Start by carrying it to the first tax year after the NOL year. If you do not use it up, carry over the unused part to the next year. Continue to carry over any unused part of the NOL until you use it up or complete the 20-year carryforward period.

For an NOL occurring in a tax year beginning before August 6, 1997, the carryforward period is 15 years.

Crop Insurance and Crop Disaster Payments - Agriculture Tax Tips

Are these payments taxable?

You must include in income any crop insurance proceeds you receive as the result of crop damage. You generally include them in the year you receive them. Treat as crop insurance proceeds the crop disaster payments you receive from the federal government as the result of destruction or damage to crops, or the inability to plant crops because of drought, flood, or any other natural disaster.

Note: You can request income tax withholding from crop disaster payments you receive from the federal government. Use Form W-4V, Voluntary Withholding Request (PDF). Refer to How to Get Tax Help in Publication 225 for information about ordering the form.

You May Choose To Postpone Reporting Until The Following Year

If you use the cash method of accounting and receive crop insurance proceeds in the same tax year in which the crops are damaged, you can choose to postpone reporting the proceeds as income until the following tax year. You can make this choice if you can show you would have included income from the damaged crops in any tax year following the year the damage occurred.

How To Postpone Reporting Of Crop Insurance Proceeds

To choose to postpone reporting crop insurance proceeds received in the current year, report the amount you received on line 8a of Schedule F (PDF), but do not include it as a taxable amount on line 8b. Check the box on line 8c and attach a statement to your tax return. It must include your name and address and contain the following information:

  • A statement that you are making a choice under IRC section 451(d) and Treasury Regulation section 1.451-6
  • The specific crop or crops destroyed or damaged
  • A statement that under your normal business practice you would have included income from the destroyed or damaged crops in gross income for a tax year following the year the crops were destroyed or damaged
  • The cause of the destruction or damage and the date or dates it occurred
  • The total payments you received from insurance carriers, itemized for each specific crop and the date you received each payment
  • The name of each insurance carrier from whom you received payments

Farm Income Averaging - Agriculture Tax Tips

Is your profit greater than normal?

If you are engaged in a farming business, you may be able to average all or some of your current year's farm income by shifting it to the 3 prior years (base years). The term "farming business " is defined in the instructions for Schedule J (Form 1040) (PDF).

Who Can Use Farm Income Averaging

You can elect to use farm income averaging if, in the year of the election, you are engaged in a farming business as an individual, a partner in a partnership, or a shareholder in an S corporation. You do not need to have been engaged in a farming business in any base year.

Who Cannot Use Farm Income Averaging

Corporations, partnerships, S corporations, estates, and trusts cannot use farm income averaging.

Prepaid Farm Expenses - Agriculture Tax Tips

Do you buy supplies in advance?

There may be a limit on your deduction for prepaid farm supplies if you use the cash method of accounting to report your income and expenses. This limit will not apply, however, if you meet one of the exceptions, described later.

Deposits are not considered prepaid farm expenses.

What is a Prepaid Farm Expense

Prepaid farm supplies are amounts you paid during the tax year for the following items:

  • Feed, seed, fertilizer, and similar farm supplies not used or consumed during the year
  • Poultry (including egg-laying hens and baby chicks) bought for use (or for both use and resale) in your farm business that would be deductible in the following year if you had capitalized the cost and deducted it ratably (for example, monthly) over the lesser of 12 months or the useful life of the poultry
  • Poultry bought for resale and not resold during the year

What is Not a Prepaid Farm Expense

Prepaid farm supplies do not include any amount paid for farm supplies on hand at the end of the tax year that you would have consumed if not for a fire, storm, flood, other casualty, disease, or drought.

Deduction Limit

You can deduct an expense for prepaid farm supplies that does not exceed 50% of your other deductible farm expenses in the year of payment. You can deduct an expense for any excess prepaid farm supplies only for the tax year you use or consume the supplies.

The cost of poultry bought for use (or for both use and resale) in your farm business and not allowed in the year of payment is deductible in the following year. The cost of poultry bought for resale is deductible in the year you sell or otherwise dispose of that poultry.

Items Purchased for Resale - Agriculture Tax Tips

When do you deduct the cost of livestock and other items?

If you use the cash method of accounting, you can deduct the cost of livestock and other items purchased for resale in Part I of Schedule F in the year of sale. This cost includes freight charges for transporting the livestock to the farm. Ordinarily, this is the only time you can deduct the purchase price. Refer to Farm Business Expenses, Items Purchased for Resale in Publication 225, Farmer's Tax Guide.


You report on the cash method. In 2000, you buy 50 steers you will sell in 2001. You will report the sales price minus the purchase price (and any freight cost) as income in Part I of your 2001 Schedule F.

Soil and Water Conservation - Agriculture Tax Tips

Do you have an erosion problem?

If you are in the business of farming, you can choose to currently deduct your expenses for soil or water conservation or for the prevention of erosion of land used in farming. Otherwise, these are capital expenses that must be added to the basis of the land. Conservation expenses for land in a foreign country do not qualify for this special treatment. The deduction cannot be more than 25% of your gross income from farming.

Plan Certification

You can deduct your expenses for soil and water conservation only if they are consistent with a plan approved by the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) of the Department of Agriculture. If no such plan exists, the expenses must be consistent with a soil conservation plan of a comparable state agency to be deductible. Keep a copy of the plan with your books and records as part of the support for your deductions.

Choosing To Deduct

You can choose to deduct soil and water conservation expenses on your tax return for the first year you pay or incur these expenses. If you choose to deduct them, you must deduct the total allowable amount in the year they are paid or incurred. If you do not deduct the expenses, you must capitalize them.

Note: If you receive cash rental for a farm you own that is not used in farm production, you can not claim soil and water conservation expenses for that farm. These costs must be capitalized into the land basis.


You own a farm in Iowa and live in California. You rent the farm for $125 in cash per acre and do not materially participate in producing or managing production of the crops grown on the farm. You cannot deduct your soil conservation expenses for this farm. You must capitalize the expenses and add them to the basis of the land.

Commodity Credit Corporation Loans - Agriculture Tax Tips

When does a loan become income?

Normally, you do not report loans you receive as income, and you report income from a crop for the year you sell it. However, if you pledge part or all of your production to secure a CCC loan, you can choose to treat the loan as if it were a sale of the crop and report the loan proceeds as income for the year you receive them. You do not need approval from the IRS to adopt this method of reporting CCC loans, even though you may have reported those received in earlier years as taxable income for the year you sold the crop.

Once you report a CCC loan as income for the year received, you must report all CCC loans in that year and later years in the same way, unless you get approval from the IRS to change to a different method. Refer to Change in Accounting Method in Publication 225, Farmer's Tax Guide.

Note: You can request income tax withholding on CCC loan payments made to you. Use Form W-4V, Voluntary Withholding Request (PDF). Refer to How to Get Tax Help in Publication 225 for information about ordering the form.

How To Choose To Report A CCC Loan As Income

To make the choice to report a loan as income, include the loan as income on line 7a of Schedule F (PDF) for the year you receive it. Attach a statement to your return showing the details of the loan.

Repayment of CCC Loans using CCC Certificates

Farmers who pledge part or all of their production to secure a CCC loan may not be properly reporting market gain when they use CCC certificates in connection with paying off their loans. See IR-2004-38, March 18, 2004, for more information regarding the tax considerations of this transaction.

Sales Caused By Weather-Related Condition - Agriculture Tax Tips

How can you report the income?

If you sell more livestock, including poultry, than you normally would in a year because of a drought, flood, or other weather-related condition, you may be able to choose to postpone reporting the gain from selling the additional animals until the next year.

Eligibility To Postpone Reporting The Gain From Selling The Additional Animals

You must meet all the following conditions to qualify:

  • Your principal trade or business is farming
  • You use the cash method of accounting
  • You can show that, under your usual business practices, you would not have sold the animals this year except for the weather-related condition
  • The weather-related condition caused an area to be designated as eligible for assistance by the federal government

Sales Made Before The Area Became Eligible

Sales made before the area became eligible for federal assistance qualify if the weather-related condition that caused the sale also caused the area to be designated as eligible for federal assistance. The designation can be made by the President, the Department of Agriculture (or any of its agencies), or by other federal agencies.

You must file an election statement and the return by the due date of the return, including extensions.

Fuel and Road Use Tax - Agriculture Tax Tips

Are you paying too much fuel tax?

You may be eligible to claim a credit or refund of excise taxes on fuel used on a farm for farming purposes. This applies if you are the owner, tenant, or operator of a farm. You can claim only a credit for the tax on gasoline used on a farm for farming purposes. You can claim either a credit or refund for the tax on aviation fuel used on a farm for farming purposes.

What Cannot be Claimed as a Credit or Refund

You cannot claim a credit or refund for the tax on undyed diesel fuel or undyed kerosene used on a farm for farming purposes or for any use of dyed diesel fuel or dyed kerosene.

Note: Fuel is used on a farm for farming purposes only if used in carrying on a trade or business of farming, on a farm in the United States, and for farming purposes.

How To Buy Diesel Fuel and Kerosene Tax Free

You buy dyed diesel fuel and dyed kerosene excise tax free. You must use them only for a nontaxable use, including use on a farm for farming purposes. If you use the dyed fuel for a taxable use, you could be subject to the excise tax and a penalty. For example, if a truck used on a farm for farming purposes is also used on the highways (even though in connection with operating the farm), tax applies to the diesel fuel used (or sold for use) in operating the truck on the highways. The fuel was used off the farm for a taxable use.

Form 2290

If you use certain vehicles on public highways, such as a truck or truck tractor, registered or required to be registered in your name, file Form 2290, Heavy Highway Vehicle Use Tax Return (PDF), for the following purposes:

  • To figure and pay the tax due on heavy highway vehicles (taxable gross weight 55,000 pounds or more) used during the period from July 1 to June 30
  • To claim an exemption from the tax when the vehicle is expected to be used 5,000 miles or less (7,500 for agricultural vehicles) during the period

National Tobacco Growers Settlement Trust Payment - Agriculture Tax Tips

Are my settlement payments taxable?

The National Tobacco Growers Settlement Trust (Trust) is an offshoot of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) which was signed in November 1998 to settle claims brought by a majority of the states against certain tobacco manufacturers, to recover health care costs associated with tobacco use. As a result, tobacco manufacturers agreed to pay $5.15 billion to the Trust over a 12-year period, with the first installment of $380 million being paid in 1999 to tobacco landowners, producers, and tobacco quota owners in 14 states.

Since that time, anecdotal information received by the IRS suggests that recipients of the payments may not know the correct tax treatment, i.e., that the funds are taxable income in the year constructively received.

Taxpayers may inquire regarding the federal tax treatment of their payments. For federal tax purposes, these payments are considered gross income per Internal Revenue Code Section 61. Under this Section, Gross Income is defined as, "all income from whatever source derived," except for those items specifically excluded by the Internal Revenue Code.

Eligibility to receive payments under the Trust described above is based upon a formula developed and administered each Trust year by each state Certification entity. Under the terms of the Trust agreement, that formula may be based upon any crop year or years from 1993 forward. However, the State of Maryland (and other States may follow suit) is offering an additional incentive above the National Settlement described above. Under the State of Maryland Buyout, payments are made to eligible recipients in lieu of them growing tobacco or otherwise using their land for tobacco purposes for a 10-year period. All payments received with respect to the State of Maryland Buyout are to be treated as ordinary income (just as if the taxpayer grew and sold tobacco) if the taxpayer is an active farmer subject to self-employment tax, or rental income if the taxpayer rents out their land, as further described below.

Under Section 451 of the Internal Revenue Code and Section 1.451-1(a) of the Income Tax Regulations, taxpayers using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting generally include amounts in gross income for the taxable year in which funds are actually or constructively received. With respect to the National Settlement, taxpayers will receive a 1099-Misc statement in January 2002 that reflects the amount they should report on their 2001 return. Verbiage is included on Form 1099 that indicates the applicable time period with respect to payments received (From DECEMBER 29, 2000 through NOVEMBER 20, 2001) that should be included in income on 2001 returns. Those receiving funds under the Maryland Buyout also received a stuffer that detailed the proper tax treatment with respect to the Maryland payments.

The payment is reported as income on different tax forms, however, depending on specific taxpayer situations. For example, a taxpayer who raises and sells a tobacco crop would report the payment as gross income on Schedule F, "Profit or Loss From Farming," and would be subject to applicable self-employment tax. Landowners or tobacco quota owners, who historically have leased their tobacco-related property and did not help to produce the crop, would report the settlement payments as farm rental income on Form 4835, "Farm Rental and Expenses."

IRS Publication 225, "Farmer's Tax Guide," has more information on these forms and how farm income should be reported. If additional information is needed, please contact our toll free number at 1(800) 829-1040

IRS Reminds Farmers, National Tobacco Settlement Payments are Taxable Each Year

WWASHINGTON - Landowners, producers and tobacco quota owners who receive money from the National Tobacco Settlement Trust must report those payments as income each year, the Internal Revenue Service said today. See IR-2003-7, January 21, 2003 for the full text of the information release.

Tax Laws and Regulations - Agriculture

This page provides links to recent revenue rulings and court cases, legal determination of business use of the home and other regulations for the small business.

Cost-share payments: Forest Land Enhancement Program (FLEP).
Rev.Rul. 2004-8 (PDF), I.R.B. 2004-10, 544 (March 8, 2004)

The IRS has ruled that the Forest Land Enhancement Program (FLEP) is substantially
similar to the type of programs described in Code Sec. 126(a)(1) through (8) within the meaning of Code Sec. 126(a)(9). Accordingly, all or a portion of cost-share payments received under the FLEP is eligible for exclusion from gross income to the extent permitted by Code Sec. 126. The IRS notes that Code Sec. 126(b)(1) and Reg. 16A.126-1 can be used to determine what portion, if any, of the cost-share payments is excludable from gross income under Code Sec. 126.

Exclusions from income: Cost-sharing payments: Conservation Reserve Program
Rev.Rul. 2003-59 (PDF), I.R.B. 2003-24, 1014 (June 16, 2003)

The IRS has determined that all or a portion of cost-share payments received under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is eligible for exclusion from gross income to the extent permitted by Code Sec. 126. The CRP is substantially similar to the type of programs described in Code Sec. 126(a)(1) through (8); thus, it falls within the scope of Code Sec. 126(a)(9). However, rental payments and incentive payments made to CRP participants do not qualify as cost-share payments and, therefore, are includible in gross income.

Additional Resources

United States Tax Court
The U.S. Tax Court is a Federal court of record established by Congress under Article I of the Constitution of the United States. Here users can look up historical opinions on tax court cases.

United States Tax Code
The Legal Information Institute at Cornell University hosts the entire US Tax code. There is also a search function to quickly find relevant information.

Audit Technique Guides - Agriculture

The IRS Market Segment Specialization Program (MSSP) publishes various guides for use by IRS employees conducting audits and as information for taxpayers and practitioners.

Farm Hobby Losses (PDF)
The Market Segment Specialization Program (MSSP) Audit Techniques Guide (ATG) on IRC Section 183 Farm Hobby Losses has been developed to provide guidance to Revenue Agents and Tax Auditors in pursuing the application of IRC Section 183 with respect to horse activities and cattle operations.

Farmers ATG - Chapter Two - Income
This chapter examines some of the relevant income issues unique to farming entities.

General Livestock (PDF)
Provides a focus on the business of breeding, raising, buying and selling livestock.

Hardwood Timber Industry (PDF)
Provides general and technical information useful to examiners in classifying, preplanning and examining returns relating to this industry.

Poultry Industry (PDF)
The purpose of this guide is to highlight issues that are specific to or have a large impact on the poultry industry. Most of the issues in this guide relate directly to the major companies rather than the individual farmers. However, one chapter has been devoted to the issues normally found in conjunction with a poultry grower audit. For more general issues concerning individual farmers, please refer to the MSSP Grain Farmers Guide.

Reforestation Industry (PDF)
Overview of the industry. Discusses some issues that may be encountered - including employment taxes; poor accounting records; etc.

Swine Farm Industry (PDF)
The purpose of this guide is to identify potential issues that impact the swine industry. From the small farm operation to the largest of corporations, similar basic concepts can be seen. The guide is designed to traverse all swine operations and to explore areas that may be pertinent to your particular operations based upon type of entity and size.

Tobacco Industry (PDF)
Focuses on techniques for examining tobacco farmers, dealers and warehouse operations.

Related Links - Agriculture

This page provides links to other agencies and organizations that have specific information dealing with Agriculture.

Small Business Administration
The U.S. Small Business Administration, established in 1953, provides financial, technical and management assistance to help Americans start, run and grow their businesses.

U.S. Census Bureau - Agriculture Publication
The 1997 Census of Agriculture is the first census conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. Agricultural statistics are used by government, businesses and other institutions. Federal, state and local agencies use data for planning rural development, extension work and agricultural research. The census is the only source of detailed, complete, consistent agricultural data for each county; it also includes such data for the States and the United States.

United States Department of Agriculture
The USDA serves all Americans--the two percent who farm as well as everyone who eats, wears clothes, lives in a house, or visits a rural area or a national forest.

USDA - Farm Service Agency
FSA administers a myriad of programs.farm loans, farm programs, food aid, conservation incentives, and others.to help keep our nation's farmers and ranchers on their land, and to help those who wish to begin farming and ranching for their livelihoods.

USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service
A public health regulatory agency of the Department of Agriculture, the FSIS protects consumers by ensuring that meat, poultry and egg products are safe, wholesome and accurately labeled.

USDA Agricultural Marketing Service
The service provides standardization, grading and market news services for cotton, dairy, fruit and vegetable, livestock and seed, poultry, and tobacco. They enforce such federal laws as the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act and the Federal Seed Act. They also oversee marketing agreements and orders, administer research and promotion programs, and purchase commodities for federal food programs.

USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
The APHIS mission is an integral part of the Department of Agriculture's efforts to provide the nation with safe and affordable food. Without APHIS protecting America's animal and plant resources from agricultural pests and diseases, threats to our food supply would be quite significant.

USDA Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration
The administration facilitates the marketing of livestock, poultry, meat, cereals, oilseeds and related agricultural products, and promotes fair and competitive trading practices for the overall benefit of consumers and American agriculture. The administration is part of USDA's Marketing and Regulatory Programs, which are working to ensure a productive and competitive global marketplace for U.S. agricultural products.

USDA Forest Service
The Department of Agriculture.s Forest Service is a federal agency that manages public lands in national forests and grasslands. The service is also the largest forestry research organization in the world, and provides technical and financial assistance to state and private forestry agencies.

USDA National Peanut Research Laboratory
The National Peanut Research Laboratory mission is to conduct basic and applied research to develop knowledge of the factors affecting the production, harvesting, storage, quality and safety of peanuts. The U.S. peanut industry is in a period of economic and technological change. Research at the laboratory is dedicated to maintaining and improving the competitiveness and quality of U.S. peanuts domestically and internationally.

National Agriculture Compliance Assistance Center
The Ag Center is the "first stop" for information about environmental requirements that affect the agricultural community. The center was created by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with the support of the Department of Agriculture.

Environmental Working Group Farm Subsidy Database
The Farm Subsidy Database Web site tracks over 108 million USDA payments totaling $114 billion.

National Timber Tax Web Site
This Web site was developed to be used by timberland owners, and serve as a reference source for accountants, attorneys, consulting foresters and other professionals who work with timberland owners, by answering specific questions regarding the tax treatment of timber.

National Business Association
The association is a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting and educating the small business community and the self-employed. The National Business Association monitors legislation in Washington, D.C., and provides updates and information on current issues and trends facing the small business community.

National Small Business Association * formerly National Small Business United
NSBA has been the advocate for small businesses since 1937. With 65,000+ U.S. members through its chapters and affiliate organizations, the association not only keeps small business owners in touch with legislative and regulatory issues that affect them, but this non-partisan advocacy group also seeks to engage the small business community to take action.

National Federation of Independent Business
The federation is the largest advocacy organization representing small and independent businesses in Washington, D.C., and all 50 state capitals.

Association of Small Business Development Centers
The mission of the association is to represent the collective interest of our members by promoting, informing, supporting and continuously improving the SBDC network, which delivers nationwide educational assistance to strengthen small/medium business management, thereby contributing to the growth of local, state and national economies.

National Association for the Self-Employed
The association was founded in 1981 by a group of small business owners seeking the kinds of benefits and services that were once only available to large corporations.

American Farm Bureau
The bureau is an independent, non-governmental, voluntary organization governed by and representing farm and ranch families. The Farm Bureau is local, county, state, national and international in scope.

U.S. House Committee on Agriculture
The committee.s Web site provides the ability to search for agriculture legislation, news releases and information on subcommittee members.

State and Local Government on the Net
This is a directory of official state, county and city government Web sites.

Financial Resources - Agriculture

This section provides you with direct links to many commonly-used financial resources for small businesses.

Small Business Administration (SBA)
The SBA Website provides you with direct links to many commonly used financial resources for small businesses.

SBA Summary Business Loan Data
Just click on the region you are interested in for a comprehensive monthly update of business loan information.

SBA Search Loan Detail Information
Search the SBA database for more specific business loan information.

SBA Office of Advocacy: Banking Studies - Small Business Lending in the U.S.
The Office of Advocacy uses call report and Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) data to analyze the lending activity of individual reporting commercial banks in the United States.

SBIC Program Financing to Small Business
Find statistics on the Small Business Investment Companies (SBICs) who provide venture capital to small independent businesses, both new and already established.

Chicago Board of Trade
The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), established in 1848, is the world's oldest derivatives (futures and futures-options) ex

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